Friday, May 22, 2020

Military Grave Markers and Tombstones

For many, the first introduction to an ancestors military service is at the cemetery when they discover a flag or military marker next to their ancestors grave, or an unknown acronym or image carved on the stone. Common Military Abbreviations United States - Military Abbreviations - Ranks, Units AwardsAustralia - Military Abbreviations TerminologyCanada - Military Abbreviations, Terms and MeaningsGermany - Glossary of Germany military terms and abbreviations Tombstone Symbols May Indicate Military Service Flag - liberty and loyalty. Often seen on military markers.Stars Stripes around an Eagle - Eternal vigilance and liberty. Often seen on U.S. military markers.Sword - often indicates military service. When found on the base of the stone might indicate infantry.Crossed swords - May indicate a military person of high rank or a life lost in battle.Horse - May indicate calvalry.Eagle - courage, faith and generosity. May indicate military service.Shield - Strength and courage. May indicate military service.Rifle - often indicates military service.Cannon - generally indicates military service. When found on the base of the stone it may indicate artillery. Acronyms for Military Groups Veterans Organizations CSA - Confederate States of AmericaDAR - Daughters of the American RevolutionGAR - Grand Army of the RepublicSAR - Sons of the American RevolutionSCV - Sons of Confederate VeteransSSAWV - Sons of Spanish American War VeteransUDC - United Daughters of the ConfederacyUSD 1812 - Daughters of the War of 1812USWV - United Spanish War VeteransVFW - Veterans of Foreign Wars

Friday, May 8, 2020

Books Are Humanity in Print Essay - 1364 Words

British Lit Final Exam May 26, 2010 Books Are Humanity in Print, The human race is known for change; it has evolved from prehistoric ‘cavemen’, ancient empires, and Vikings to aristocratic monarchies, democracies, and dictatorships. With each passing year, there are technological advancements, changing political platforms, and a progressively mobile worldwide population. Each literary era reflects the human feats, lifestyles, and changing times: Anglo-Saxon epics consist of glory battle scenes, bloodied warriors, and feuding countries; Middle English works consist of glorified knights, the chivalric code, and a greedy, materialistic court; and, modern literary classics depict worlds of which the human race is ruled by technology.†¦show more content†¦While most of the poem depicts pagan customs, such as wergild,, there are three specific ways that Christianity is seen: the title character, Beowulf, is depicted as good while Grendel, who descended from Cain, is depicted at evil; there are conflicting ideas of fate and free wil l; and the lord is seen as an almightily, singular being. Following the Norman Conquests, the French influence drastically changed the British Isles: the language of the aristocracy became French; feudalism, a social and economic hierarchy, became the caste system of choice; and, chivalry was abounded. However, The French influence quickly declined following the Crusades, the struggle between church and state, the Magna Carta, the Hundred Years War, the Bubonic Plague, and the rise of cities. The anonymously authored, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, reflects the shifting social order. A satire of a culture in moral decline, the poem is filled with elaborate descriptions of courtly festivities, the accouterments of knighthood, and the inane codes of chivalry. The knights of both the era and the poem are dressed to the nines: fancy belts, gold plated shields, and various other garments unnecessary for warfare. The knights pledged their loyalty to their kings, their honor to women, an d their defense to the Christian faith. In the poem, ChristmasShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Study of Anthropology and the Humanities1361 Words   |  6 Pages The humanities are a broad multidisciplinary field of study where its disciplines aren’t in just one department. Therefore, studying the humanities correlates to the study of anthropology. Simply put, anthropology is the study of humanity and the origins of human beings. Learning about the humanities can help those studying anthropology because the humanities looks into understanding and exploring the human condition. There is an idea of culture that is used to describe what humans do. AnthropologyRead MoreThe Humanity of Achilles Essay922 Words   |  4 Pagesselfish, and Dionysian nature as an epic hero and his hidden empathetic Apollonian core, Achilles reveals the mythos of the Iliad which states that war degrades mankind into objects and only the pursuit of Apollonian regard for others renews their huma nity. Early on in the Iliad readers realize that Achilles is primarily a Dionysian man in nature who often acts on his impulses to strive for glory and seek revenge. The three things men want most—power, possession, glory—are the primary motivation forRead MoreCormac McCarthy: Explorer of Humanity’s Core Essay1718 Words   |  7 Pagesgrotesque––the base and broken nature of the human soul and how society is easily susceptible to ruin, both spiritually and physically. As today’s most important Southern Gothic writer, Cormac McCarthy crafts works and themes which delve into the nature of humanity, explore the depravity, futility, and, ultimately, reveal the hope that exists inside each individual. A common sight within McCarthy’s novels is a human committing some sort of violent or depraved act against another human being. Lester BallardRead MoreAthanasia: Human Impermanence and the Journey for Eternal Life in the Epic of Gilgamesh1740 Words   |  7 Pageslived is shattered into pieces and he finds it difficult to return to his former glorious self; this is the first time in Gilgamesh’s life that he has ever felt the emotions of fear. Gilgamesh is afraid to die. The inevitable fate that has plagued humanity for ages, death, has now become the greatest barrier that he must overcome. The immense scope that separates death from eternal life is breached, this crossover leads to a paramount connection between the supernatural and mortal universe. GilgameshRead MoreEssay on Prophet Exegesis: Habakkuk1412 Words   |  6 PagesB.C.E., the Assyrians engendered centuries of political intrigue and laid the foundation for future unscrupulous kingdoms and idolatrous people .1 Once the Babylonian empire overthrew Josiah, the King of Judah, Habakkuk began to compose a prophetic book, questioning the ways of God. Above all, Habakkuk could not comprehend why â€Å"the evil circumvented the just†2; he thought that the impiety of the world did not correlate with a supposedly just God.3 Throughout his narrative, this biblical prophet cameRead MoreThe Learning Potential Of E Books1450 Words   |  6 PagesDo They Really Think Differently?† (2001) the author clearly argues a need to adapt to students modern learning styles. In Lotta Larson’s â€Å"The Learning Potential of e-Books† (2015) Larson also argues the clear benefits of eLearning for today’s students. Finally, is Naomi S. Baron’s â€Å"How E-Reading Threatens Learning is the Humanities† (2014) a different approach is noted as eLearning could be argued as distracting to a student’s learning process. It is no question that pupils today can benefit fromRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Bible to the Koran Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesThe Bible is a collection of sixty books that was written by diverse of authors, including the apostles and the disciple of Jesus. The Bible divided into two Testaments; the Old and New Testament. The Old Testament or the old contract is a collection of thirty-six books and the New Testament has twenty seven books. The New Testament is a contract between God and the humanity through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Koran was written by Muhammad, a prophet of God. Muslims believedRead MoreBiblical Analysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1376 Words   |  6 PagesFrankenstein is a viable creation story. The book of Genesis first explains the creation of man and woman, and also recounts the fall of humanity. Unlike Genesis, Frankenstein begins with the fall of humanity, leading into the creation of man. Although it would be simple to compare the novel to such non-religious terms , the religious symbolism cannot be ignored in Frankenstein. Many biblical references within Frankenstein refer to the creation story in the first book of Genesis. â€Å"Because you have listenedRead MoreEssay on Coping Mechanisms in Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse-Five1679 Words   |  7 Pagesan accurate account of the Dresden bombing. There is no cause and effect in the book, not even a climax that is common to making it a good work of fiction. Vonnegut puts together the novel with small episodes and scatters them throughout the book without an actual timeline – the readers are traveling with Billy being spastic in time, living in the past, the present, and the future. It is, after all, not a history book but a science fiction novel. Vonnegut clarifies the logic of the novel’s style throughRead MoreWall-E versus Feed Essay1212 Words   |  5 Pagesit also represents M.T. Anderson’s Feed and Pixar’s Wall-E. Feed is a book about a dystopian society influenced by a device, called â€Å"feed†, implanted in the brains of the citizens. The author describes a group of regular teenagers that venture t o the moon for a spring break vacation of partying and going â€Å"in mal†. The main character, Titus, falls for a girl named Violet who is not like the other stereotypical teens in this book. Violet received the feed when she was much older and she is homeschooled

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Everything Bad Is Good for You Free Essays

In Everything Bad Is Good For You, Steven Johnson uses many scientific methods and presents point of view stating that popular culture does not only have negative impacts on us. In the introduction of the television section, he briefly tells us the truth that the complexity of modern TV shows is rising and it also makes people more intelligent. To support his ideas, Johnson divides the content into three parts: Multiple threading, Flashing Arrows, and Social Networks. We will write a custom essay sample on Everything Bad Is Good for You or any similar topic only for you Order Now Multiple threading is very common in modern television shows but not in past shows. Johnson uses four graphs which clearly show the amount of plot content in relation to the running time of four episodes from different shows, to depict changes of complexity in TV dramas. In one drama, Dragnet, the narrative only focuses on one plotline; a few years later, the numbers of plotline have been increased in another drama called The Sopranos. The evidence strongly supports Johnson’s statement: Multiple threading becomes more complex and abundant in modern television dramas. However, it is not the only reason that makes TV shows more complicated. Flashing Arrows, which had allowed viewers to follow the plot more easily television shows of the past, disappeared and were transformed in modern soap dramas and sitcoms. TV shows stopped using flashing arrows because audiences have been learned to find the hidden answers in the shows for many years. In soap operas, flashing arrows have been transformed to â€Å"texture† and â€Å"substance† (p. 78), which are used for building up a realistic dramatic situation in the drama. In sitcoms, flashing arrows become a reward of knowing the â€Å"in-joke† by attaining extra information outside the shows. Although sitcoms become more complex, they are not the only shows that have changed. Social networks are mainly used in reality programming and political debates. When audiences watch The Apprentice or Survivor, a reality show, they will use â€Å"social intelligence† (p. 96) to judge participants’ personalities. Each facial expression and action from the participants provides clues to audiences for the judgment. In political debates, audiences will judge the politicians’ appearances, speech, skin color or actions to decide the votes. Social intelligence† is a brain activity that people will do it automatically when they try to make decisions. Johnson’s evidence has shown â€Å"social intelligence† has been improved by reality shows. However, social networks do not only represent the network among participants and audiences, but also the social relationships of characters in the TV dramas. The social mapping of 24 clearly shows the complex rel ationships among all the characters. There are four families being involved in the show, but the relationships are not obvious to the audience. Audiences need to build up the social connections by watching the show. The process is difficult and challenging, but the audience has already gotten used to it by training from the past thirty years. Social networks are also a part of making audiences become smarter. Basically, Johnson thinks television has become more complex because of multithreading, flashing arrows and social network. These three elements are also important to people’s brain activity which has made them smarter. How to cite Everything Bad Is Good for You, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The setting of the play enhances the tension among the men Essay Example

The setting of the play enhances the tension among the men Essay Angry Men, Reginald Rose reveals how the confined space of the jury room is not only hot weather wise but hot because of the heated exchanges and the tension. The descriptive nature of Roses writing depicts the Immense pressure that the jurors are under and the below par conditions they are given to make a life or death decision for the boy. Rose recognizes that even though there may be tension and conflict between Jurors that as a combined group will be able to make the correct session. The setting Itself is described as being run down evident with the fan that doesnt work. Juror 7 shows his frustration to the conditions when he says Oh, thats beautiful, the fan doesnt work . As a result of the fan not working the jury room is described as being humid, and Rose also shows how the poor conditions have a toll on the Jurors, They are not only fighting against each other In order to present their own views and decision but the Jurors are described to be fighting against the humid conditions in order to maintain focus. Rose presents how the weather contributes to the tension of the other jurors. We will write a custom essay sample on The setting of the play enhances the tension among the men specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The setting of the play enhances the tension among the men specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The setting of the play enhances the tension among the men specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The rundown Jury room is another reminder to Jurors that the quicker they make their decision the quicker they can leave. This is evident with Juror seven on page 50 who not only wants to go to the ball game but wants to leave the Jury room. The jury room is tale of the times as during the sasss America went through a period of modernization and therefore the jurors were somewhat not accustomed to the old way of living In a way. They were asked to perform a duty of heir country leaving the comfort of their home and put Into a room to make a decision with eleven other jurors who have very different backgrounds and have contrasting opinions. The fan and the lights turning on brings a shift in the play, the fan turning on metaphorically speaking cools down the room. This change is bought across by the comment from Juror 7 when he says Hey, lets try to get this fan going in here. Even though there is still tension as some jurors are at odds with each other, the fan brings for better decision making and calmness in conversations. The fan turning on signals a change in the mentality of some Jurors who now take in the considerations of other Jurors and do not become as heated and aggressive towards other jurors as they had been before the fan had turned on. This change enables jurors like juror 4 to no have reasonable doubt (page 58) as they begin to see past their preconceived ideas and are able to understand and take in the scrutiny by Juror eight on the evidence. At this stage the character of Juror 9 emerges as he begins to main confidence and begins to feel valued and therefore Is able to contribute with his insightful opinions and knowledge that give the other Jurors a better understanding. Rose uses the wash room as another way to relieve tension. The wash room allows Jurors to leave the main room of the jury room so that they can think to themselves and can shelter away from the correctly and tension that Is ongoing In the mall room. The wash room also calms down certain jurors who become too heated in the main room as they cannot handle the views of others or do not want to accept these ant to be there and are only let out when the problem/issue is resolved. The window is the only connection that the Jurors have with the outside world, which gives the Jurors the chance to reflect on their life and ponder on what they could do. The New York Skyline that is able to be seen shows the difference in scenery between where the Jurors are now and where they want to be. The window also reinforces that the Jurors have been isolated away from society which makes them feel like a prisoner, confined to a room. The room itself is described like a prison cell as Jurors knot want to be there and they are only let until the issue has been resolved and a decision has been made. The environment is very similar to that of the prison, as they have the bully who bosses around the smaller people into doing what he want them to do. Rose depicts this through the character of Juror 3 whose aggressive nature forces Jurors to do what he wants them to do. Some of the Jurors begin to reflect on their life and their experiences which is evident when Juror 12 says say isnt that the Woolworth building.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Battles of the Revolutionary W essays

Battles of the Revolutionary W essays The book that I chose to review for Early U.S. History was Battles of the Revolutionary War: 1775 1781 by W. J. Wood. This book is an analysis of numerous important battles fought in America's war for independence. In theAuthor's Introduction? section of the book, Wood states his main objective in writing Battles of the Revolutionary War: 1775 1781. He explains that his purpose is to refute the common belief that battles in the American Revolutionary War areof questionable worth for military historians and their readers because they areall of a piece? too much alike.? (Wood xix) Wood disagrees with this view of the war and has attempted to give examples of battles that he has deemedunique? and that should be studied in military history. Wood does not limit his descriptions of the major battles to simple tactical analysis, however. In addition to tactical evaluation, he also seeks to paint a portrait of each battle and its respective conditions and participants. Some major points that Wood emphasizes in his writing are the effect of the rifle on Revolutionary War tactics, the hindrance that British soldiers faced due to their bulky uniforms, and the strengths and weaknesses of important military commanders such as George Washington and Benedict Arnold. In addition to painting a picture of each battle, W. J. Wood also adds a variety of visual aids to further assist the reader. The various maps and diagrams that are included within the text are enormously helpful in allowing the reader to understand the unique land features of each battle, the placement of troops, and also the overall regional theater through maps of the entire region. Wood has also added sixteen pages of artwork illustrating relevant battle scenes and portraits of various military commanders. The majority of the book Battles of the Revolutionary War: 1775 1781 is, of course, spent detailing the ten battles that Wood has chosen to describe. These ten battles...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

What Is the PARCC Test Do You Have to Take It

What Is the PARCC Test Do You Have to Take It SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips PARCC exams are relatively new and not particularly widespread, which means that finding reliable information on what they are and what they mean can be tough. In this guide, I’ll go over everything you need to know about these exams, including where they’re administered, what they test, and how to prepare. What's the PARCC Test? If you're researching PARCC tests, you're probably a bit familiar withstate exams and how they work. Stateexams are tests that are written and managed at the state level - they're administered, often on a yearly basis, at public schools within that state to monitor student progress. They also set expectations for what students should know at each grade level. Performance is considered at a large scale (e.g. state education departments may look into school districts with particularly low scores) and at an individual level (e.g. a school may provide extra resources to an individual student who isn't at grade level). PARCC (or thePartnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers) is a group of several states that work together to develop and administer state exams. Each state that participates in PARCC uses these tests to monitor student progress in lieu of individual state tests - the ultimate goal is to standardize Common Core expectations across states. These tests are designed to better replacements for old versions of state tests because (as PARCC claims) they provide better information about students' skills and development to teachers and parents. In a nutshell, these examinations are meant to evaluate college and career readiness starting at a young age. By evaluating readiness early and often (i.e. on a yearly basis), teachers and parents should be better able to help children prepare for the future. For example, teachers may use information about exam performance to identify where students may need extra help. One of PARCC’s advisory committees is dedicated to working with college and universities to accept test results as an â€Å"indicator of readiness† for first-time freshmen, so it looks like they’re also making moves to replace the SAT and ACT. There’s no indication that any colleges accept PARCC results in lieu of SAT/ACT scores, however, so this isn’t somethingyou have to worry about at the moment. Test Logistics There are actually many tests and assessments that are administered through PARCC. Annual Year-end Tests - English/language arts and math tests are administered every year in grades 3-11. I'll be focusing primarily on these exams for the rest of the article. Instructional Tools and Tasks - These may be used throughout the school year, and are meant mostly for teachers. Like other state tests, the PARCC exam is supposed to align with what students are actually learning in the classroom for each grade level. As such, the actual content and the level of difficulty of the exams will vary depending on students’ grade level. I’ll go into more detail shortly. WhatStates Require the PARCC Test? In 2010, 24 states (plus Washington DC) belonged to PARCC, but the number of states participating in the program has dropped significantly since then. As of2015-2016 school year, there are11 states fully active in administering the PARCC tests: Colorado Washington DC Illinois Maryland Massachusetts New Jersey New Mexico Rhode Island What's on the PARCC Test? These examinations are relatively new - they’ve been updated quite often over the past several years, and will surely be updated in the future. That being said, a few important things have remained consistent: The two core content areas tested are English/language arts and math. The tests strive to be modern assessments of competency in higher-level critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The exams don't just test content - theytest the development of skills that (presumably) help students succeed. When you’re trying to gauge whether students are developing critical thinking and problem-solving skills - things that are essential for doing well in college and in the workplace - the way that questions are asked on the exam will be just as important as testcontent. I’ll address both of these important factors here. Tests are a lot less intimdating when you know what's going to be on them. Test Content PARCC test content aligns most closely with what students learn based on Common Core standards. These standards may vary slightly, but remember that the PARCC exams will be standardized across all participating states - as such, you can expect the exams to test content that’s shared by all those states. Content will also depend on grade level, of course. There are a couple of ways you can figure out what you can expect to see on the test: Check out Common Core standards by state. Talk with your teacher (or your child’s teacher) about the content he/she plans on covering for the year, and what he/she expects to see on the year-end PARCC exam. Check out PARCC practice tests. The PARCC website does provide some very basic information about what’s expected of both elementary and middle school students in both English and Math: English expectations for all grade levels (3-11): Students read one or more texts (and sometimes watch a video), write about what they read and/or viewed, and provide evidence drawn from the reading. English expectations for middle school and high school: Students are expected to read several passages and integrate ideas from all of them into their written responses. Math expectations for all grade levels (3-11): Students must reason mathematically, make sense of quantities and their relationships to solve real-world problems, and show their understanding. Math expectations for middle school and high school: Students are expected to develop procedural skills, conceptual understanding, and modeling and application skills with a focus on broadening number sense into ratios, rational numbers, and proportions while transitioning to algebraic skills (including working with expressions, equations, and graphs). Question Format This is where the PARCC tests really claim to stand out when compared to other, older state exams. Testing critical-thinking and problem-solving skills is tougher than testing just straight-up content knowledge - this modern test format reflects these efforts. Here are a couple of examples from the PARCC site to show you what I mean: EXAMPLE 1 The old English test item asks students to simply write a persuasive essay. The new test item asks students to consider the perspectives of multiple authors before responding (using textual evidence) with their own argument. This is quite similar - in concept, if not in difficulty level - to what students will see on the writing sections of the ACT and SAT. ELA/Literacy example questions: old test items versus PARCC test items EXAMPLE 2 The old math test item is a word problem - students have to use basic reading comprehension skills to work through the question - but it essentially is asking students to count days on a calendar. The new math test item requires students to utilize more sophisticated data analysis skills - namelythey'll have to interpret information instead of just performing mathematical calculations. PARCC exams also asks studentsto explain their reasoning. Math example questions: old test items vs. PARCC test items Preparing for the PARCC Much of the work that you’ll need to do to prepare for the PARCC happens in school. State tests are used to assess instructor, school, district, and state performance, so the pressure to do well isn’t really on the student - it’s on everyone who’s responsible for preparing the student for his or her future. With that being said, there’s nothing wrong with wanting to prepare for the test! Students should want to perform to the best of their ability because that will best inform teachers about their needs. If nothing else, preparing for a PARCC exam is good practice for other future standardized tests. There isn’t a ton of official prep material out there, but PARCC has released official practice tests for each grade level. You shouldapproach PARCC practice in the same way you’d approach ACT/SAT prep: by starting off with a full diagnostic test and then carefully analyzing your mistakes. If you find that you have any weak areas, you can use class notes and/or assistance from your teacher to close up any content gaps. What Your Scores Mean for You Students aren’t penalized or rewarded based on how they perform on PARCC exams. Their results are used to inform teachers, parents, and administrators whether they’re learning everything they’re supposed to be learning - particularly low or high scores should help teachers customize instruction for individual students. What these scores are: A measure of how familiar you are with the test content. To some degree, a measure of how familiar you are with the test format and general test-taking strategy. PERHAPS a measure of whether you’re on track for college and a career. The tests are still very new - we don’t have any hard evidence to suggest that high scores on the test in any way predict success in college and beyond (although there is ongoing research on this question). What these score are not: A measure of your intelligence. A measure of how successful you’ll be in the future. Now that you have a better idea of what your PARCC scores actually mean, we can talk in more detail about the test scoring system. How the PARCC Scoring System Works The tests’ scoring system is based on what they call â€Å"performance levels.† These different levels are: Level 1: Did not yet meet expectations Level 2: Partially met expectations Level 3: Approached expectations Level 4: Met expectations Level 5: Exceeded expectations If you are at level 4 or 5, you’re good to go. Level 3 indicates that you’re almost there - you might just need a little extra help. Levels 1-2 indicate that more significant help from instructors might be necessary to bring scores up to grade level standards. As with other state tests, you’ll receive a score report with your raw score and corresponding performance level after the exam. Here’s an example of what that might look like: An example of a PARCC score report At the bottom of the report, you can see that you’re given a bit more context for your scores - you have access to the school, district, state, and overall score average. If you'd like to learn more, PARCC has set up a site where parents can accessinformation about score results and improving performance. Summary To wrap up, PARCC exams shouldn’t be a source of stress for students or parents. Like most other state tests, these exams arecheck-in assessments that help instructors (and schools, and school districts) understand whether students are on the right track for college or for a career. Unlike other outdated tests, PARCC exams are moving towards assessing higher-level cognitive skills rather than just straight-up content. High school students might recognize that the questions they see on these tests are similar to the ones they might see on the ACT or SAT. It’s unclear whether PARCC tests truly measure college-readiness, but they’re certainly similar to other college entrance exams. Perhaps these year-end tests will help prepare students (starting in 3rd grade!) for future exams where more is at stake. What's Next? PARCC content is based on Common Core standards. If you want to do well on a PARCC exam, you may want to read more about the Common Core and why it matters. Looking at tests similar to the PARCC? Read more about ACT Aspireand check out available practice tests. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Management Report - Quantitive Problem Solving Essay

Management Report - Quantitive Problem Solving - Essay Example Since customer’s time is the most precious parameter, it has also been decreased drastically in alternative 3. Each car has to wait for only 2.52 minutes in alternative 3. In addition to that, there is only a 22.86% chance that an arriving car will have to wait for the service whereas in alternative 2 there is 50% chance and in alternative 1 the number increases to 80% which is absolutely inefficient. If the company pursues the strategy of seeking the initial foundation of the venture and then have a major (almost immediate) expansion of the fledging company, the net payoff of this strategy will be  £90,000. If the company pursues the strategy of seeking the initial foundation and doing nothing in the first year and makes an expansion in the second year if the tourist attraction is built then it will result in a net payoff of  £65,000. If the number of competitors is 1 then the total number of market players will be 2 since my own company will also be operating in the market. The sales volume figure can be calculated by multiplying the total number of market players with the estimated sales. Here the assumption is that the sales of all the competitors will be equal to our sales Looking at the graph, it is reasonable to infer that the sales volume will increase at a decreasing rate as the number of competitors increase because the industry sales will exhaust at some point of